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Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency that a pseudonymous group or person called Satoshi Nakamoto invented in 2008. It is the oldest cryptocurrency and the largest by market capitalization. Bitcoin is different from government-issued fiat currency.

Blocksize War

The blocksize war was a battle for control over Bitcoin’s protocol rules that took place between 2015-2017. The blocksize war consisted of two camps. The small blockers wanted to keep Bitcoin’s block size small. The large blockers, on the other hand, pushed for an increase in Bitcoin’s block size.

Smithsonian Agreement

The Smithsonian Agreement was an attempt to reform the Bretton Woods system after president Nixon closed the gold window in 1971. The new agreement and reforms to the monetary system included devaluing the dollar against gold and adjusting the fixed exchange rates at which currencies were pegged to the US dollar.

Fractional Reserve Banking

Fractional reserve banking is a banking system in which banks only keep a small percentage of deposits on hand. The rest of the money is lent out. Under a fractional reserve banking system, banks expand the money supply with each new loan. This provides the economy with money.


Deflation is when prices decrease throughout the economy. It is the opposite of inflation and most commonly associated with a contraction of the money supply, a drop in aggregate demand and technological progress. When there is less money chasing the same number of goods and services, prices decrease.

Hyperinflation in Zimbabwe

The Zimbabwean hyperinflation occurred between 2007-2009. It was the first episode of hyperinflation recorded in the 21st century. During the hyperinflation in Zimbabwe, prices rose exponentially and reached an inflation rate of 89,700,000,000,000,000,000,000% in November 2008.

Federal Funds Rate

The federal funds rate, sometimes called fed funds rate, is the target interest rate at which banks provide overnight loans to each other. It is one of the main tools used by the Federal Reserve to conduct monetary policy. By controlling the federal funds rate, the Federal Reserve is able to influence the money supply.

Quantitative Easing

Quantitative easing (QE) is a form of monetary policy that central banks use to stimulate the economy. As part of this strategy, central banks purchase assets like mortgage-backed securities and government bonds. Through the use of QE, central banks can increase the money supply.

Petrodollar System

The petrodollar system is an unofficial monetary system that started in 1974. As parst of the petrodollar system, most global oil exports are priced in US dollars. In return, the United States offers protection and cooperation to Saudi Arabia and other members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

Executive Order 6102

Executive Order 6102 is an executive order that former president Franklin D. Roosevelt signed in 1933. It outlawed private gold ownership and ended the gold standard in the United States.[1] The American Presidency Project. “Executive Order 6102—Requiring Gold Coin, Gold Bullion and Gold Certificates to Be Delivered to the Government” Accessed Feb. 24,